Overview  
     
 
 Foundation
 Date Founded  70-75 CE    
 Place Founded Yavne, Palestine
 Founder Johanan bar Zecharaih (Zakkai), or John, son of Zachariah (John the Baptist)
 Adherents  14 million   
 Major Sects  Reform, Conservative, and Orthodox
 Main Locations
 Israel, Europe, and USA
 
 
 Sacred Objects, Rituals and Locations
 Sacred texts
 Tanakh with the Talmud
 Original language  Hebrew, Aramaic.
 Spiritual leaders
 Place of worship
 synagogue ("temple" in Reform Judaism)
 Day of worship
 Saturday (Shabbat/Sabbath)
 Major holidays
• Rosh Hashanah: Jewish New Year (1 Tishri)
• Yom Kippur: Day of Atonement (10 Tishri)
• Sukkot: Festival of Booths (15 Tishri)
• Hanukkah (25 Kislev)
• Tu B'Shevat: New Year for Trees (15 Shevat)
• Purim (15 Adar)
• Pesach: Passover (15 Nisan)
• Shavuot: Pentecost (6 Sivan)
 
 
 Fundamental philosophy
 Theism ("god")
 Monotheism
 Ultimate reality
 One God (YHWH)
 Human nature
 created good
 Purpose of life
 obedience to God
 How to live
 obey the law and atone for sin
 Afterlife
 views vary: Gan Eden, Gehinnom, nonexistence, or reincarnation
 Cosmology  
 
 
 Laws and commandments
 Seven days of creation
• Separation of light from darkness.
• Separation of water above and waters below.
• Separation of land from water.
• Sun, moon, and stars.
• Sea creatures and birds.
• Land creatures and man.
• God rested
 Ten Commandments
• Worship no other gods.
• Do not worship idols.
• Do not misuse the name of the Lord.
• Keep the Sabbath holy.
• Honor your father and mother.
• Do not murder.
• Do not commit adultery.
• Do not steal.
• Do not give false testimony
• Do not covet.
 Twelve tribes of Israel
• Reuben
• Levi/Simeon
• Judah
• Issachar
• Zebulun
• Benjamin
• Dan
• Naphtali
• Gad
• Asher
• Ephraim
• Manassah
 13 Articles of Faith
• God exists
• God is one and unique
• God is incorporeal
• God is eternal
• Prayer is to God only.
• The prophets spoke truth.
• Moses was the greatest of the prophets.
• The Written and Oral Torah were given to Moses.
• There will be no other Torah.
• God knows the thoughts and deeds of men.
• God will reward the good and punish the wicked.
• The Messiah will come.
• The dead will be resurrected
 
     
     


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Key Facts